Houve um fenômeno de democratização estética nas cinco partes sábias do mundo. Instituíra-se o naturalismo. Copiar. Quadros de carneiros que não fosse lã mesmo, não prestava. A interpretação no dicionário oral das Escolas de Belas Artes queria dizer reproduzir igualzinho… Veio a pirogravura. As meninas de todos os lares ficaram artistas. Apareceu a máquina fotográfica. E com todas as prerrogativas do cabelo grande, da caspa e da misteriosa genialidade de olho virado – o artista fotógrafo.
(It created the phenomenon of aesthetic democratization in the five corners of the world. Naturalism instituted itself. To copy. Pictures of sheep that did not equal wool, did not render. The interpretation of the unwritten dictionary of the School of Beautiful Arts wanted to reproduce small copies… Then the pirogravura arrived. All the girls at home became artists. Then photography appeared. And with all the attributes of big hair, lice, and the mysterious ingenuity of the inverted eye – the artist-photographer.)
[The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Portuguese: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ) is the largest federal university of Brazil. It was founded in 1932, originally as “University of Brazil” (Universidade do Brasil), by gathering a number of previously autonomous institutions of higher education.By then, Rio was capital of Brazil and it was part of the government strategy to have qualified professionals in the country’s new economy. Some of the faculties and schools which form UFRJ date back to colonial times, such as the Escola de Belas Artes (School of Fine Arts) and the Faculdade de Medicina (Medical College). – i havent yet found the sigficance or influence of the School during colonial times –
Could also refer to the Escola de Belas Artes in Lisbon and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in France, promoting the Beaux-Arts tradition, and in architectur / urban planning particularly.]
[pirogravura: engraving device that uses fire to burn images onto wood. Not sure about its history in Brazil and whether or not it is a gendered art]
[no idea about the reference to big hair and lice. a portrait of someone particular?]
Na música, o piano invadiu as saletas nuas, de folhinha na parede. Todas as meninas ficaram pianistas. Surgiu o piano de manivela, o piano de patas. A pleyela. E a ironia eslava compôs para a pleyela. Stravinski.
(In music, the piano invaded the naked parlors, with a calendar on the wall. All girls became pianists. Then the pianola arrived, the piano of legs. The pleyela. And the Slavic irony composed for the pleyela. Stravinsky.)
[The pianola is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist. Instead, it is moved by mechanical, pneumatic or electrical means.
The Russian composer, Igor Stravinsky, spent fifteen years in close contact with pianolas of different kinds. He composed an original study for the instrument, planned it as part of the accompaniment to his ballet, “Les Noces”, and actually rewrote most of his major early works especially for piano roll.
Pianolas were well-known in Russia before the revolution, but it seems likely that Stravinsky first became aware of their real musical potential in Berlin in late 1912, where he joined Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes on tour, for the opening of “Petrushka” on 4 December. Arnold Schoenberg was in the audience that night, and was impressed, and four days later he invited Stravinsky to a performance of “Pierrot Lunaire” in the Choralion Saal at Bellevuestrasse 4. The Choralion Company was the Aeolian Company’s subsidiary in Germany, and its showrooms were full of pianolas. This visit clearly caused Stravinsky to think of using roll-operated instruments for his own music, because within a few days he had received a telegram from Diaghilev, reassuring him that pianola arrangements were not necessary for the rehearsals of the Rite of Spring, and a tart reply from the Parisian agency that supplied repetiteurs for the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées, that its pianists were quite capable of mastering the complexities of his music.
A few years later, with his thoughts turning to “Les Noces”, he enquired of the Aeolian Company in London whether it would be possible to perforate pianola rolls for the accompaniment, and as a result of this contact, he decided to write a series of studies for the Pianola. In fact, he only completed one study, known nowadays as the “Etude pour Pianola”, written in 1917, but published and first performed in 1921.
“Les Noces” was one of the central works of Stravinsky’s life. It combined his feelings towards the Russia that he had left, and that had changed for ever, his religious beliefs, the musical discoveries that he had made as he travelled Europe, and not least his sense of humour. Initially he thought of arranging it for large orchestra and chorus, but he discarded this version in favour of a much more unusual orchestration. The full title of the work is actually “Svadebka” in Russian, “Les Noces Villageoises” in French, and is best translated as “The Village Wedding” in English. It is a wedding, not of the rich bourgeoisie, but of peasant folk, with all the excitement and mishaps that this entails.
So in trying to represent this peasant quality in music, Stravinsky combined a pianola, played in a deliberately mechanical way, two Hungarian cimbaloms, a harmonium, and a great deal of percussion.
During the 1920s, the firm of Pleyel, which was the major musical establishment in Paris, furnished Stravinsky with a studio in its headquarters in the rue Rochechouart. He was able to use this as an office, a studio for composition, a workshop for creating new piano roll versions of most of his early works, and as a pied-à-terre for entertaining guests, not least his future wife, Vera Soudeikina. In close co-operation with Jacques Larmanjat, Pleyel’s head of music rolls, he made new arrangements of Firebird, Petrushka, the Rite of Spring, the Song of the Nightingale, Pulcinella, Les Noces, and a host of smaller works.]